ESSA Project's Deliverables


Digital Transformation in European Steel Industry: State of Art and Future Scenario

(Status: 30.09.2019)



The current technological transformation in the European industry is driven by seven drivers of changes (as listed in ESSA project):

1. Advanced manufacturing (Industry 4.0)
2. Advanced materials development
3. Complex and global supply chains
4. Market competition and over-capacity
5. Life cycle design, pollution prevention and product recyclability
6. Decarbonisation and energy efficiency
7. Evolution of customer requirements.

ESSA thus constitutes an industry driven European technologies for low-carbon production.
However, digitalization can be considered the main driver that directly impacts on the advanced manufacturing and transversally affects all the others. As consequence, it can be said that the technological transformation in the European Industry is driven by digitalization, aiming mainly to increase the production efficiency and sustainability in order to reduce the industrial environmental impact. That is particularly true for the energy-consuming industry, like the steel industry. The digital transformation of the steel production mainly concerns the application of the related technologies on the steel production processes, where the ongoing technological developments are focused on two fields: 1) advanced tools for the optimization of the whole production chain and 2) specific technologies for low-carbon production.
Starting with some necessary definitions, next paragraphs describe the current state of this technological transformation with an analysis of the main developments funded by EU Research Pro-grams achieved in the above fields. In addition, the analysis of the Best Available Techniques (BAT) document provides information, mainly based on the application of digitalization systems, in particular in the Energy management, Water and Wastewater management and in some production processes. The application of BAT aims at achieving continuous improvements in the steel sector, in particular regarding quality, costs, energy consumption and environmental performance. In this context, digital technologies help to reach these objectives, adapting and integrating them with the traditional ones and with the new process. For this reason, the analysis of this document can be a good starting point to understand the innovative and emerging techniques for the steel production processes.
The effects of digitalization on the steel industry workforce as well as the future economic developments are also described in the following paragraphs.
Concerning the methodology, this deliverable has been prepared following an integrated research approach. It foresees to collect all the necessary information through desk research (European funded projects and literature) and a survey addressed to steel companies. To this aim, an explorative questionnaire has been launched to gather specific information directly from steel industry.

The current version of the deliverable is based exclusively on the desk research, waiting for a significant sample of answers from the questionnaire addressed to European steel companies.


Database of Professional Profiles (Version 1)

Deliverable D3.1 - (Status: 31.01.2020)


The potentiality for the equivalence between ESCO and the titles in the STEEL SECTOR opened the door to the automatization of the description of the European Steel Sector Professional Role Profiles taking the ESCO description of occupations as the basis.

Therefore the ESSA project aims to generate a common and interactive database of professional profiles related with the steel sector through integration of the data and automation.

To accomplish this objective, University of Deusto developed an excel-based software that will allow automating the description of the different steel-related job profiles. In this way, an automated database of job profiles related with steel industry (D 3.1) was delivered using “Steel Professional Role Profiles description template” format. 

It was developed using ESCO occupations database as the main source and benefiting from “European ICT Professional Role Profiles. The integration of more data from other respectable sources including COSME, CEDEFOP, etc and the industrial ESSA partners into the database will be conducted in the near future.

Our objective is not only to be able to update the existing job profile descriptions in ESCO, but also to introduce new ESSA job profile descriptions related to steel sector into the ESCO database in an interactive way. In this way, the work developed during the compilation of the profiles in the STEEL SECTOR industry will feed the ESCO database, enriching it with new occupations and descriptions. 



Company Skills Requirements and Foresight (Version 1, January 2020)

Deliverable D3.2 - (Status: 31.01.2020)



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Introduction to the WP4 Deliverables (January 2020) 

The anticipation of skills demands and their integration into VET provision are two of the most challenging and ambitious objectives of ESSA. The research conducted under WP4 focuses on establishing the relevant regulatory framework, functioning and vocational routes of five national VET systems (in particular, as it applies to the steel sector). It also aims at setting out how EU tools, programmes and frameworks currently serve the steel industry and how the industry could benefit from higher integration of VET at European level.

Identification of National (Sector) VET Qualification and Skills (Regulatory) Frameworks for Steel

Deliverable D4.1 - (Status: Version 1)


This report focuses on VET characteristics, requirements and regulation in five countries selected from among the ESSA partnership (namely, Germany, Italy, Poland, Spain, UK). It is aimed at providing a picture of regulatory aspects and essential characteristics of the selected countries’ VET systems, with a special focus on VET provision related to the Steel Industry.

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Analysis of cross-European VET frameworks and standards for sector skills recognition

Deliverable D4.2 - (Status: Version 1)


The report focuses on cross-European VET frameworks and standards for sector skills recognition. It provides an overview of the most relevant devices and regulations designed and implemented at the EU level to support the transparency and transferability of qualifications and competences among the EU countries. The purpose of the deliverable is to establish how Europe-wide instruments, programmes and frameworks serve the steel industry and how they might be exploited further for meeting the industry skills requirements and talents mobility.


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Sector Skill-Set Matrix

Deliverable D4.3 - (Status: Version 1)


This report provides the background required to use D4.4 (Skill-Set Matrix). It explains the functions of the Matrix and introduces and explains key categories utilised for conceptualising it.


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Sector Skill-Set Matrix - Matrix Database (Version 1)

Deliverable D4.4 - (Status: Version 1)



The Sector Skill-Set Matrix is designed to connect specific job profiles within the industry, as these have been identified under WP3, with the relevant formal initial vocational training (IVET) provision available in the 5 case study countries (Germany, United Kingdom, Italy, Poland and Spain). 

The rows of the Matrix identify the steel industry job profiles. The columns are organised into two macro-sections: European and national level. The European level groups the references that can be made, moving from the job profiles, to European and international frameworks and databases like EQF, ESCO, ISCO, ISCED, to increase cross-national transparency and recognisability of the profiles. The national level is in turn divided into 5 sub-sections, one for each case study country. Each of these translates the identified profiles into national job profiles and attempts to match them with the formal vocational qualifications available in the country. Here it is also reported whether the formal (national) qualifications connect or integrate with the above-mentioned international frameworks and where the qualifications already incorporate some of the new skills required by the industry (as identified by WP3).


Within the general objectives of ESSA, the Sector Skill-Set matrix aims to perform three main functions:

a)       to provide an overview to which extent skills provision in the five case study countries have been affected by European-level initiatives to harmonise national VET provisions and VET documentations. Such a functionality is useful mainly for those interested in the harmonisation of VET provisions and accreditations at the EU level.

b)      to link future skill needs (FSN) that are either task-, job-, qualification-based or unspecific to the ‘best’ avenue in any specific context to deliver the missing skills to those who need them.

c)      to systematically link job profiles to vocational qualification programmes, i.e. apprenticeships programmes, across the five case study countries as far as this is possible and feasible.

A more extensive explanation of the rationale and theoretical assumptions that inform the Matrix can be found in Deliverable 4.3.

The Matrix can be of potential use for HR managers in companies who might need to assess the equivalence of occupational qualifications across Europe in case they hire workers who have received their qualifications elsewhere. Having an overview of steel-sector relevant occupational qualifications should also be of use to those who want to drive forward European initiatives to improve the quality and relevance of steel-sector relevant IVET programmes.


Sector Skill Framework

Deliverable D4.5 - (Status: Version 1)


The report summarizes the research carried out in the context of the WP4 of the ESSA project, VET Requirements and Regulations / National VET Systems (relevant requirements and regulations for the Blueprint), and provides insights and recommendations based on the findings. More specifically, the objective of this deliverable is to outline the state of play and strategy recommendations regarding the necessary actions needed to overcome the gaps and deficits within the current and future VET provision.

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Co-funded by the Erasmus + Programme of the European Union
Agreement Number: 2018-3059/001-001
Project Number: 600886-EPP-1-2018-1-DE-EPPKA2-SSA-B
Last updated on: 13/07/2020 4:25pm